By Bhabindra ghimire
Multi dynamic service center Nepal
All the countries of the world are striving for human welfare. All kinds of governments and rulers are saying that they are working for the people. But since the organized journey of development has started, social inequality is also expanding.
The Gini index of each country is proving this. Humanitarian organizations of the world are raising the voices of human development and public welfare. The dimensions of development are also changing and broadening. It is said that business organizations such as the World Bank are also committed to poverty-oriented development. The United Nations Development Program and other thematic United Nations agencies have also been conducting a global campaign for human-centered development strategies.
Development and Distribution
Investment, technology and globalization have made the fruits of economic production bigger, but when it is distributed to the society, the hands of the market have been seen to be very cruel and harsh. No policy, principle and mechanism has been able to disrupt this process. The concerted efforts of the rich are only capable of giving pity and sympathy to the poor, not of genuine sensitivity. Therefore, the poor and the poor are taking a permanent place in the characters of the stories, the expressions of the poems and the figures of the reports created by the pen of the rich and the rich. Whether it is the poverty of Bajura-Mugu-Dolpa or the epidemic of Rukum-Jajarkot.
The opportunity of birth is the 'place premium'. Those born in Arghakhachi have different opportunities and those born in Kathmandu do not have the same opportunities. Those who do not get this opportunity are suffering from poverty, inequality, instability and conflict, and are at risk of disasters and epidemics. Those who get 'Place Premium' enjoy limitless opportunities and possibilities. Those who have opportunities are buying opportunities, the poor who do not are in the process of deprivation. The efforts of the state or the civil bodies under it have not been seen as sincere to give equal 'place premium' or to prevent deprivation of opportunities on the basis of birth. Therefore, the state can be called a moral and judicial body, and the moral question of money has been raised before the state. Along with the development of the modern state system, the power struggle, competition for opportunities and the expansion of inequality are also continuous, so it is considered necessary to completely rebuild the state or meaningful disruption. Plato, Aristotle, Marx, Rousseau, Amtraysen or Joseph Steagles, none of the philosophers were active in uncovering this truth and finding a solution. Wealth makes a person's mind and face bright, while the mental horizon also expands. His voice is bold in the society, he presents himself fearlessly. He is capable of becoming a scientist, a thinker, a writer, a seeker, a ruler, an entrepreneur. Therefore, the world is for him. But the other side of the 'Axitrum' picture is very tragic and scary. The first is a blooming rose, the second is a withered leaf. One is always on the way to becoming a ruler and the other is always on the way to being ruled. Hunger, pain, despair, social isolation, insecurity, powerlessness, voicelessness, lack of self-esteem are all qualities to be governed. In this way, silence is enough to naturally invite crisis in every society
Poverty and destitution
Why is the poor always poor? Is poverty and destitution hereditary? The answer is usually 'yes'. Being born in the womb of a poor person simply means that he is almost poor. For him, the journey to prosperity and opportunity is very difficult. Education, health, social relations and other opportunities necessary for personality development are not easily available, even if it is insufficient for his personal development. The poor also lag behind in creating social structures, mutual relationships, interactions, etc. As a result, they are marginalized from social institutions and activities. Their access to other forms of wealth (physical, economic, informational, human) remains low. Therefore, the poor cannot speak about their own issues. Their needs, desires and priorities are ignored by the wealthy who do not understand their sympathy. The embarrassing situation of others writing, telling and doing about him is being created automatically. The one who is relatively conscious, healthy and prosperous becomes the heir to the voice and needs of the poor and needy. In reality, life is a pain for the poor and needy, without punishment for crime. While those with a 'place premium' are celebrating the endless opportunities and joys this millennium has brought, the underprivileged are suffering deeply. Because poverty is a pain, a combination of physical, emotional and moral pain.
The Ethics and Basis of Power in the Market of Opportunity
He who has the opportunity deserves it and he who is rich gets the opportunity. This is not an established theory, but a practical and sociological conclusion. Till date there is no such country and society in the world where the poor and voiceless are able to use social opportunities easily. Freedom is also an extension of prosperity. Affluent people use more freedom than the poor, there is also a simple linear relationship between personal development and prosperity. Amartya Sen, who is known as the economist of the poor, said - development is the expansion of freedom. From another angle, it can be said that freedom is the income of prosperity. In a society where there is no social value culture, opportunities are easily bought through theft, fraud, corruption, kidnapping and other criminal activities. In this way, those who can buy opportunities are in the process of making their future generations educated, prosperous, powerful and rulers. Children of easy earners are the partners of every opportunity. The ethics and basis of power are not seen in the market of opportunity. No society is an exception to this. We all know that those who get the 'office premium' are expanding their opportunities hundreds of times more than those who sit in the same office. As Kathmandu is far for Humli, New York is as close to Kathmandu's elite.
Rich countries are asking for help just to show sympathy to the poor, this is also a good act. National politicians are giving mercy and alms in the name of the people, this is another powerful act. Justice and equality in the society cannot be established, nor the development of the overall meaning is possible until the rich person acts as the voice of the poor patient. Development is not a matter of securing opportunities for only one class and section and pushing the other class behind. Real development is the process of empowering those who have no voice and those who have no power. It is a process of bringing opportunities to those who do not have opportunities. It is an endless process of expanding human potential to meet human needs. Development should promote ethics, equity, equal opportunities, empowerment and inclusiveness. It is not enough to look at it directly and visibly, development also has a symbolic meaning, development is a state where everyone feels valued. Where security, rights, opportunities are all available with him. Therefore, if the state and the state process are to be made moral and just, then there should be a meaningful effort to include the behavior of the state equally to all. New politicians, new development experts, new philosophers should make new efforts from the heart. To break the current situation where being born in someone's womb is a blessing and being born in another's womb is a curse, everyone should take responsibility and morals towards everyone. This is not possible without a radical change in the thinking, style, behavior and organization and processes of those in charge.
Equitable distribution of development
The efforts of development should include all classes equally, the policies of the state should make everyone move equally and from one class of society to another class, region and gender group should be included in the network of reciprocity. Only then can it be said that development has been distributed equitably. Moreover, the concerted efforts of the state should pave the way for equal involvement and empowerment of all. The process of socio-cultural integration cannot be said to be in order until Kathmandu should be devastated by Jumla fever, Gurung's pain by Thakuri and Chepang's pain by Newars. But now it is being said that not only is the state not trying for this kind of social harmony, but the state itself is an institutional obstacle. This feeling should not be allowed to develop for many days. For the state, emotional division is far more dangerous than formal obstruction. Development not only improves the physical aspect of a person, but also raises the mental and emotional level.
But the development efforts in the past were insistent. Investments in Kathmandu and Darchula or Kaski and Bajura are not equitable. Similarly, due to the fact that there is a specific class-centered or power-centered development pattern, social differentiation has increased. Even in the development projects that are focused on the remote and special tribes, they are incomplete, unable to pay attention to the special class and to empower them, but they are seen as passive consumers. Meeting their needs was prioritized across a much wider geographical distance and from the perspective of others. As a result, the social, geographical and gender gaps were increasing. Compared to the human development indicators of Newars, Brahmins, Jhangad, Musahar, Paswan, Rams are not only very low but their position is not seen on the basis of what can be called the human standards of this century. Similarly, there was no comparison between Darchula and Mugu with Kathmandu and Biratnagar. In order to bring these class and ethnic progress to the same point, we have to go through a terrible journey, which can be seen between Nepal and European countries.
Consumption (elite capture)
Social services provided by the state such as education, health, social security should be targeted at the weaker sections. Deprivation is the state of exclusion from policy and service delivery. Compared to the facilities that the wealthy class gets, this class should get special subsidies, concessions, without harassment and easy state service facilities. It should also be of good quality. But the journey in this direction that we decided in the past was also disappointing. A 'negative equitable effect' has been seen in the state's special concession program due to discrepancies such as service delivery by the state reaching a small amount to the target group, often the services are lost along the way, corruption in the service that captures the consumption 9elite capture, and the quality of the service is not maintained. It has also been helping the poor and the deprived to push them towards further deprivation.
Historical development has shown that the power structure is caste-based. For a long time in the past, the division of social work forced women, men, Brahmins, Chhetri, Newar, Gurung, Kirant and other oppressed castes and tribes to act according to social values. Therefore, the class established as the mental working class and the class working with physical skills were naturally separated from the power structure. There were different categories of working inside the house and working inside the four walls. After the advent of democracy, all the constitutionalist, monarchist, and communist parties were led by certain classes and castes, so the reflection of the same has been formally reflected in the state organization as well. Therefore, it is self-evident that the structure of power practice from the state to the family and society does not care about inclusion. Similarly, geographical ground and distance from the headquarters, religion, culture, language and culture also contribute to deprivation.
Social harmony is the first step towards equitable development. Individuals/classes should find a role according to their strengths and possibilities in society and the state chain. The current tone (need) is to find one's role. The state also becomes a moral institution when it can give egalitarian rule. For this achievement, the state should make continuous efforts for a long time. However, specific actions are urgently needed to contribute in this direction. The first thing is that the behavior of the state should be coordinated. State policies and laws should address all classes, castes and gender equally. Policy and law should not divide. After that, equity should be ensured in resource allocation. Natural, economic and technical resources of the state should be allocated in accordance with the 'social metrics'. For this, it becomes necessary to compare, analyze and evaluate social indicators. Special efforts targeting the weaker sections should be adopted as a short-term strategy. These aspects should be covered under special efforts (a) A time-bound equal opportunity law should be brought (b) Affirmative action plans and reservations should be used 9c) Actions should be taken to conduct awareness-sensing programs. For this, civil society mobilization and social work network building should be expanded regionally.